Quasi-judicial removal procedures of judges in Russia and the United States of America

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Author: Irina Kuznetsova

DOI: 10.21128/1812-7126-2022-2-88-104

Keywords: judicial independence guarantees; American judge’s impeachment; other judge’s majoritarian removal procedures; presidential and parliamentary powers of judge’s removal in the Russian Federation; amendment to the Constitution of the Russian Federation 2020

Abstract

The article analyzes the Russian innovation of removal of a judge, based on legislation after entry into force of a Federal Law amending the Constitution of the Russian Federation and compares it with the process of impeachment, one long-known in countries of the Anglo-American legal system, and used in the United States in particular. The article is aimed at identifying the commonalities, differences, and priorities of judicial removal procedures in Russia and the U.S.A. The author conducts to that end a comparative legal analysis of all stages of removal, as well as of the activities of the subjects of judicial removal proceedings in the United States and Russia, starting with the initiation of proceedings and up to the termination of the judge’s authority. In the author’s view, an American judge’s impeachment is a quasi-judicial procedure, which deserves attention because of its greater guarantee of judicial independence and its protection against persecution and arbitrariness leading to conviction and removal from office. This is facilitated by, first, mandatory participation of a body of the Judicial Community, the Judicial Conference; second, the participation of Congress in impeachment decision making, so as to guarantee the independence of the procedure, including its independence from the executive branch; thirdly, in order to ensure the independence of the judiciary in the American impeachment model, the principles of transparency, openness to the public and adversarialness are its basic elements; and fourthly, decisions advancing the impeachment of a judge are taken collegially at all stages of the procedure.

About the author: Irina Kuznetsova – Candidate of Sciences (Ph.D.) in Law, Associate Professor, School of Court Proceedings and Criminal Law, Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia.

Citation: Kuznetsova I. (2022) Kvazisudebnye parlamentarnye protsedury lisheniya sud’i statusa v Rossii i Soedinyonnykh Shtatakh Ameriki [Quasi-judicial removal procedures of judges in Russia and the United States of America]. Sravnitel’noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 88–104. (In Russian).

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