Available in Russian
Author: Armen Dzhagaryan
Keywords: civil society; constitutional dialogue; constitutional justice; illiberal democracy
The Russian constitutional justice is going through a stage of deep reforming. Both the nature of the participation of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation in the constitutional reform of 2020, as well as the content itself and regulatory consequences have exposed a serious value and institutional crisis of the identity of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation in the State-legal system. The main vector of the reform declared in order to “strengthen the role of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation” is essentially resulted from the authoritarian, not humanistic paradigm, and leads to the development of the integration of constitutional justice into a unified system of public power remaining without proper legal deterrence. The noted crisis of the identity of the constitutional justice, which reflects the general problems of Russian constitutionalism, is to a large extent a product and expression of a fundamental communicative constitutional crisis, failures in establishing a constitutional dialogue between the government and civil society. At the same time, constitutional justice is not only the object of this communication with its defects and dysfunctions but should act as one of its main subjects, it has a unique extremely important potential for implementing the values and practices of constitutional dialogue with civil society, especially in the conditions of post-socialism. The constitutional dialogue also characterizes the content side of the constitutional justice itself in its modern understanding. In this context, the article discusses both general issues related to the understanding of constitutional dialogue itself and its importance for constitutional justice, as well as some more specific problems of implementing the dialogic model of constitutional-judicial control in Russian realities. Determining the direction of the further evolution of the constitutional justice, which has a unique potential for self-transformation, in any case, is an important area of responsibility of civil society, which itself must remain resolute in organizing the constitutional dialogue, not avoid attempts to initiate it and insist on it.
About the author: Armen Dzhagaryan – Doctor of Law, Advisor to the Bar Association “Muranov, Chernyakov and Partners”, Moscow, Russia.
Citation: Dzhagaryan A. (2021) Konstitutsionnoe pravosudie i grazhdanskoe obshchestvo v poiskakh dialoga [Constitutional justice and civil society in search of dialogue]. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 17–40. (In Russian).
Ackerman B. (1989) Why Dialogue? The Journal of Philosophy, vol.86, no.1, pp.5–22.
Allan T.R.S. (2003) Constitutional Dialogue and the Justification of Judicial Review. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, vol.23, no.4, pp.563–584.
Barcow R.E. (2007) The Rise and Fall of the Political Question Doctrine. In: Mourtada-Sabbah N., Cain B.E. (eds.) The Political Question Doctrine and the Supreme Court of the United States, Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, pp.23–46.
Bateup С. (2006) The Dialogic Promise: Assessing the Normative Potential of Theories of Constitutional Dialogue. Brooklyn Law Review, vol.71, no.3, pp.1109–1180.
Berman H.J. (1998) Zapadnaya traditsiya prava: epokha formirovaniya [Law and revolution. The formation of the western legal tradition], N.R.Nikonova, N.N.Deev (transl.), 2nd ed., Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Moskovskogo universiteta; Izdatel'skaya gruppa INFRA-M — Norma. (In Russian).
Bondar' N.S. (2003) Konstitutsionnyy stroy kak gosudarstvenno-pravovoe vyrazhenie grazhdanskogo obshchestva Rossii [The Constitutional system as a state-legal expression of Russian Civil Society]. In: Konstitutsionnoe razvitie Rossii: mezhvuzovskiy sbornik nauchnykh statey. Vypusk 4 [Constitutional development of Russia: interuniversity collection of scientific articles. Vol.4], Saratov: Izdatel'stvo Gosudarstvennogo obrazovatel'nogo uchrezhdeniya vysshego professional'nogo obrazovaniya “Saratovskaya gosudarstvennaya akademiya prava”, pp.62–81. (In Russian).
Bondar' N.S. (2005) Vlast' i svoboda na vesakh konstitutsionnogo pravosudiya: zashchita prav cheloveka Konstitutsionnym Sudom Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Power and freedom on the scales of constitutional justice: protection of human rights by the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation], Moscow: Yustitsinform. (In Russian).
Brezhnev O.V. (2020) Konstitutsionnaya reforma 2020 g. i razvitie konstitutsionnogo pravosudiya v Rossii [The 2020 constitutional reform and the development of constitutional justice in Russia]. Konstitutsionnoe i munitsipal'noe pravo, no.7, pp.3–6. (In Russian).
Bryde B.O. (2006) The Constitutional Judge and the International Constitutionalist Dialogue. Tulane Law Review, vol.80, no.1, pp.203–219.
Carvalho A. (2014) Transconstitutionalism or Cosmopolitanism: Perspectives for a Dialogical Semantics in Contemporary Constitutionalism. Available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2474144 (accessed: 03.08.2021).
Chernogor N.N., Pashentsev D.A. (2017) Pravovoy poryadok: doktrinal'nye podkhody, metody i aktual'nye napravleniya issledovaniya [The legal order: doctrinal approaches, methods and current directions of the research]. Zhurnal rossiyskogo prava, no.8, pp.5–16. (In Russian).
Chestnov I.L. (2002) Printsip dialoga v sovremennoy teorii prava: problemy pravoponimaniya: dis. … d-ra yurid. nauk [The principle of dialogue in the modern theory of law: problems of legal understanding: Dr. in law sci. diss.], Saint Petersburg. (In Russian).
Chirninov A. (2017) Nel'zya ob'yat' neob'yatnoe: predmet dokazyvaniya v konstitutsionnom sudebnom protsesse (na primere Rossii i SShA) [Embracing the unembraceable: facts at issue in Russian and American constitutional litigation]. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.26, no.3, pp.91–112. (In Russian).
Dor G. (2000) Constitutional Dialogues in Action: Canadian and Israeli Experiences in Comparative Perspective. Indiana International & Comparative Law Review, vol.11, no.1, pp.1–36.
Evseev A.P. (2020) Politiko-pravovye tsennosti konstitutsionnykh sudey skvoz' prizmu osobykh mneniy: psikhologicheskiy podkhod [Political and legal values of constitutional judges through the prism of judicial dissent: a psychological approach]. Zakon, no.12, pp.101–117. (In Russian).
Grudtsyna L.Yu. (2008) Advokatura, notariat i drugie instituty grazhdanskogo obshchestva v Rossii: monografiya [Advocacy, notaries and other civil society institutions in Russia: a monograph], N.A.Mikhaleva (ed.), Moscow: Delovoy dvor. (In Russian).
Habermas J. (2001) Vovlechenie drugogo: Ocherki politicheskoy teorii [The inclusion of the other: Studies in political theory], Yu.M.Medvedev (transl.), Moscow: Nauka. (In Russian).
Hirschl R. (2006) The New Constitution and the Judicialization of Pure Politics Worldwide. Fordham Law Review, vol.75, no.2, pp.721–753.
Jackson V.C. (2004) Constitutional Dialogue and Human Dignity: States and Transnational Constitutional Discourse. Montana Law Review, vol.65, no.1, pp.15–40.
Kochenov D., van Wolferen M. (2018) The Dialogical Rule of Law and the Breakdown of Dialogue in the EU. European University Institute Working Paper LAW 2018/01. Available at: https://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/50764/WP_2018_1.pdf?sequence=1 (accessed: 03.08.2021).
Kochevar S. (2013) Amici Curiae in Civil Law Jurisdictions. Yale Law Journal, vol.122, no.6, pp.1653–1669.
Kryazhkov V.A. (2012) Rossiyskaya model' konstitutsionnoy zhaloby [The Russian model of the constitutional complaint]. Konstitutsionnoe i munitsipal'noe pravo, no.5, pp.65–71. (In Russian).
Luk'yanova E., Shablinskiy I. (2018) Avtoritarizm i demokratiya [Authoritarianism and democracy], Moscow: Mysl'. (In Russian).
Mamut L.S. (2011) Pravovoe obshchenie: Ocherk teorii [Legal communication: An essay of the theory], Moscow: Norma: Infra-M. (In Russian).
Meuwese A., Snel M. (2013) “Constitutional Dialogue”: An Overview. Utrecht Law Review, vol.9, no.2, pp.123–140.
Morkhat P.M. (2007) Sudebnaya vlast' i grazhdanskoe obshchestvo: vzaimnyy dialog [The judiciary and civil society: mutual dialogue]. Rossiyskiy sud'ya, no.12, pp.5–7. (In Russian).
Morshchakova T. (2017) O nekotorykh aktual'nykh problemakh konstitutsionnogo pravosudiya [Some actual issues of constitutional justice development in Russia]. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.26, no.3, pp.117–124. (In Russian).
Mubangizi J., Mbazira C. (2012) Constructing the Amicus Curiae Procedure in Human Rights Litigation: What Can Uganda Learn From South Africa? Law, Democracy & Development, vol.16, pp.199–218.
Nasyrov R.V. (2017) Yuridicheskaya nauka kak dialog [Science of law as a dialogue]. Izvestiya Altayskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, no.3, pp.28–31. (In Russian).
Orlova O.V. (2007) Pravo i samorealizatsiya lichnosti v grazhdanskom obshchestve [The right and self-realization of the individual in civil society], Moscow: Institut gosudarstva i prava Rossiyskoy akademii nauk. (In Russian).
Polyakov A.V. (2014) Kommunikativnoe pravoponimanie: izbrannye trudy [Communicative legal understanding: selected works], Saint Petersburg: Alef-Press. (In Russian).
Rumyantsev O.G. (2020) Konstitutsionnaya reforma-2020 v Rossiyskoy Federatsii: pristrastnaya otsenka [Constitutional reform-2020 in the Russian Federation: biased assessment]. Konstitutsionnyy vestnik, no.5, pp.6–32. (In Russian).
Speranskaya N.I., Yatsevich O.E. (2016) Dialog-diskurs: semantika konteksta [Dialog-discourse: semantic context]. Vysshee obrazovanie segodnya, no.7, pp.50–52. (In Russian).
Sultanov A.R. (2012) Evropeyskie pravovye standarty, uroki istorii i pravoprimenitel'naya praktika [European legal standards, history lessons and law enforcement practice], Moscow: Statut. (In Russian).
Tikhomirov Yu.A. (2013) Grazhdanskoe obshchestvo v fokuse prava [Civil society in the focus of law]. Zhurnal rossiyskogo prava, no.10, pp.35–45. (In Russian).
Tremblay L.B. (2005) The Legitimacy of Judicial Review: The Limits of Dialogue Between Courts and Legislatures. International Journal of Constitutional Law, vol.3, no.4, pp.617–648.
Tsybulevskaya O.I. (ed.) (2013) Vzaimodeystvie grazhdanskogo obshchestva i gosudarstva v Rossii: pravovoe izmerenie [Interaction of civil society and the State in Russia: legal dimension], Saratov: Povolzhskiy institut upravleniya imeni P.A.Stolypina. (In Russian).
Van den Eynde L. (2013) An Empirical Look at the Amicus Curiae Practice of Human Rights NGOs Before the European Court of Human Rights. Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights, vol.31, no.3, pp.271–313.
Vereshchagin A. (2006) Osobye mneniya v rossiyskikh sudakh [Dissents in Russian courts]. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.15, no.4, pp.165–175. (In Russian).
Zimmerman I.M. (2000) Isolation in the Judicial Career. Court Review, pp.4–6. Available at: http://s3.amazonaws.com/tlap-prod/documents/45/original/Isolation_in_the_Judicial_Career.pdf (accessed: 03.08.2021).
Zor'kin V. (2021) Vozvrashchenie gosudarstva. Deesposobnost' vlasti proveryaetsya v obshchenatsional'noy bede [The return of the state. The capacity of the authorities is being tested in a nationwide trouble]. Rossiyskaya gazeta, 17 May, no.8061. (In Russian).