Essentia constitutionis: The Constitution of the Russian Federation in the focus of constitutional theories of the 20th and 21st centuries. Part 2

Available in Russian

Available for free

Author: Dmitry Shustrov

DOI: 10.21128/1812-7126-2017-5-78-93

Keywords: 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation; constitutional fears; constitutional ideal; constitutional values; essence of constitution; integration through constitution; liberal theory of constitution; living constitution; theory of constitution; конституционализм за пределами государства; конституционная культура; конституционные заимствования; конституционный патриотизм; Конституция России 1993 года; теория конституции; экономическая теория конституции


The Constitution as a phenomenon is studied not only in the field of jurisprudence, but also in those of history, political science, sociology, philosophy, economic sciences, and other social disciplines. Within jurisprudence, the constitution is the object of constitutional law, and in this framework a constitution is treated either dogmatically in strictly legal terns, or theoretically within the framework of constitutional theory. This article presents the most significant theories on the essence of constitutions through the 20th and 21st centuries. Among the surveyed theories are the normative theory, which regards the constitution as the highest norm of positive law, and the theory of integration, in which the constitution is viewed as the legal order of the process of state integration. The theory of the living constitution presupposes that the constitution develops over time and adapts to new circumstances without being formally changed. According to the axiological theory, the constitution is a system and a hierarchy of values. The liberal theory of defines a constitution as aiming to restrain power and guarantee human freedom. The theory of constitutional fear declares that constitutions appear as a result of previous fears that existed in society and are intended to release citizens from them by putting these fears to rest. The ontological theory of the constitution analyzes the correlation between the constitution and reality, and tries to answer the question of the relationship between constitutional norms and constitutional practices. The theory of constitutional ideals presupposes that the constitution embodies a certain ideal of the state, meaning an ideal state structure according to the standpoint of the authors of the constitution. The author leads the reader through this historical and theoretical maze in order to reflect on the impact that the abovementioned theories had on shaping the text, spirit, meaning, and practice of the existing Russian Constitution.

About the author: Dmitry Shustrov – Candidate of Sciences (Ph.D.) in Law, Associate Professor, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

Citation: Shustrov D. (2017) Essentia constitutionis: Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii v fokuse teoriy konstitutsii XX–XXI vekov. Chast’ 2 [Essentia constitutionis: The Constitution of the Russian Federation in the focus of constitutional theories of the 20th and 21st centuries. Part 2]. Sravnitel’noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, no.5, pp.78–93. (In Russian).


Aranovskiy K.V. (2003) Konstitutsionnaya traditsiya v rossiyskoy srede [Constitutional tradition in the Russian environment], Saint Petersburg: Yuridicheskiy tsentr Press. (In Russian).

Avak'yan S.A. (2000) Konstitutsiya Rossii: priroda, evolyutsiya, sovremennost' [The Constitution of Russia: nature, evolution, modernity], 2nd ed., Moscow: RYUID, “Sashko”. (In Russian).

Von Bogdandi A. (2008) Konstitutsionalizm v mezhdunarodnom prave: kommentarii k predlozheniyu iz Germanii [Constitutionalism in international law: comments on the proposal from Germany]. Pravo i politika, no.1, pp.50–63. (In Russian).

Von Bogdandy A. (2008) Pluralism, direct effect, and the ultimate say: On the relationship between international and domestic constitutional law. International Journal of Constitutional Law, vol.6, no.3–4, pp.397–413.

Dobner P., Loughlin M. (ed.) (2010) The Twilight of Constitutionalism? Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.

Ebzeev B.S. (2005) Chelovek, narod, gosudarstvo v konstitutsionnom stroe Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Man, people, state in the constitutional system of the Russian Federation], Moscow: Yuridicheskaya literatura. (In Russian).

Gadzhiev G.A. (ed.) (2010) Konstitutsionnaya ekonomika [Constitutional economics], Moscow: Yustitsinform. (In Russian).

Gadzhiev G.A. (2016) Pravo i ekonomika (metodologiya) [Law and Economics (methodology)], Moscow: Norma: INFRA-M. (In Russian).

Giryaeva V.N. (2011) Teoriya konstitutsionnoy kul'tury P.Kheberle [P.Heberle theory of constitutional culture]. In: Alferova E.V., Andreeva G.N. (ed.) Konstitutsionnaya kul'tura: universal'nye tsennosti i natsional'nye osobennosti [Constitutional culture: universal values and national features], Moscow: INION RAN, pp.44–56. (In Russian).

Hauriou M. (1930) Précis élémentaire de droit constitutionnel, 2nd ed., Paris: Libraire du Recueil Sirey.

Häberle P. (1982) Verfassungslehre als Kulturwissenschaft, 1st ed., Berlin: Duncker & Humblot.

Häberle P. (1998) Verfassungslehre als Kulturwissenschaft, 2nd ed., Berlin: Duncker & Humblot.

Häberle P. (2002) La Constitución como cultura. Anuario iberoamericano de justicia constitucional, no.6, pp.177–198.

Häberle P. (2006) Der Sinn von Verfassungen in kulturwissenschaftlicher Sicht. Archiv des öffentlichen Rechts, vol.131, no.4, pp.621–642.

Fridmen D. Pravo i ekonomicheskaya teoriya [Friedman D. Law and economic theory]. In: Ituell Dzh., Milgeyt M., N'yumen P. (ed.) (2004) Ekonomicheskaya teoriya [Eatwell J., Milgate M., Newman P. Economic theory], Moscow: INFRA-M. (In Russian).

Izenzee Y., Kirkhkhof P. (ed.) (1994) Gosudarstvennoe pravo Germanii [Isensee J., Kirchhof P. The state law of Germany], in 2 vols., Moscow: Institut gosudarstva i prava RAN. (In Russian).

Kant I. (1965) Sochineniya [Works], in 6 vols., Moscow: Mysl'. (In Russian).

Karapetov A.G. (2010) Politika i dogmatika grazhdanskogo prava: istoricheskiy ocherk [Politics and dogmatics of civil law: a historical essay]. Vestnik Vysshego Arbitrazhnogo Suda Rossiyskoy Federatsii, no.4. (In Russian).

Kenenova I.P., Troitskaya A.A., Shustrov D.G. (2015) Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe pravo v doktrine i sudebnykh resheniyakh [Comparative constitutional law in the doctrine and judgments], Moscow: URSS, KRASAND. (In Russian).

Khesse K. (1981) Osnovy konstitutsionnogo prava FRG [Hesse K. Fundamentals of the constitutional law of Federal Republic of Germany], Moscow: Yuridicheskaya literatura. (In Russian).

Krisch N. (2010) Beyond Constitutionalism: The Pluralist Structure of Post­national Law, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Loewenstein K. (1965) Political Power and the Governmental Process, 2nd ed., Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.

Macdonald R.S.J., Johnston D.M. (eds.) (2005) Towards world constitutionalism: Issues in the legal ordering of the world community, Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff.

Müller J.-W. (2007) Constitutional patriotism, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Müller J.-W., Scheppele K.L. (2008) Constitutional patriotism: An introduction. International Journal of Constitutional Law, vol.6, no.1, pp.67–71.

Odintsova M.I. (2007) Ekonomika prava [Economics of law], Moscow: Izdatel'skiy dom GU-VShE. (In Russian).

Oriu M. (2012) Osnovy publichnogo prava [Public law basics]. In: Bogdanova N.A., Shustrov D.G. (sost.) Khrestomatiya po konstitutsionnomu pravu. T.II: Konstitutsionnye osnovy ustroystva gosudarstva i obshchestva. Konstitutsionnye osnovy pravovogo polozheniya lichnosti [The reader in constitutional law. Vol.II: Constitutional foundations of the state and society. Constitutional bases of a legal position of the person], in 3 vols.,  Saint Petersburg: Alef-Press. (In Russian).

Pernice I. (2008) The Global Dimension of Multilevel Constitutionalism. A Legal Response to the Challenges of Globalisation: Walter Hallstein Institut – Paper 9/08, Berlin.

Peters A. (2005) Global Constitutionalism Revisited. International Legal Theory, vol.11, pp.39–65.

Posner R.A. (1987) The Constitution as an Economic Document. George Washington Law Review, vol.56, no.4, pp.27–38.

Pozner R.A. (2004) Ekonomicheskiy analiz prava [Economic analysis of law], in 2 vols., Saint Petersburg: Ekonomicheskaya shkola. (In Russian).

Shternberger D. (2005) Konstitutsionnyy patriotizm [Constitutional patriotism]. In: Khoffe O., Izenzee Y. Politicheskaya filosofiya v Germanii [Höffe O., Isensee J. Political Philosophy in Germany], Moscow: Sovremennye tetradi, pp.302–311. (In Russian).

Shustrov D.G. (2012) Gosudarstvo i konstitutsiya [State and constitution]. Konstitutsionnoe i munitsipal'noe pravo, no.2, pp.8–17. (In Russian).

Shustrov D. (2013) Voprosy razrabotki teorii mnogourovnevogo konstitu­tsionalizma v sovremennoy nauke konstitutsionnogo prava [Issues of the development of the theory of multi-level constitutionalism in the modern science of constitutional law]. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, no.4, pp.120–131. (In Russian).

Shustrov D. (2017) Essentia constitutionis: Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Fede­ratsii v fokuse teoriy konstitutsii XX–XXI vekov. Chast' 1 [Essentia constitutionis: The Constitution of the Russian Federation in the focus of constitutional theories of the 20th and 21st centuries. Part 1]. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, no.4, pp.124–141. (In Russian).

Shustrov D.G. (2017) Priruchyonnyy Leviafan: konstitutsiya i gosudarstvo: Monografiya [Tamed Leviathan: Constitution and State: Monograph], Saint Petersburg: Alef-Press. (In Russian).

Shustrov D.G. (2017) Sushchnost' konstitutsii: osnovnye teorii [The essence of the constitution: the basic theory], Moscow: Yurlitinform. (In Russian).

Simma B. (1995) The Contribution of Alfred Verdross to the Theory of International Law. European Journal of International Law, vol.6, no.1, pp.33–54.

Tambovtsev V.L. (2005) Pravo i ekonomicheskaya teoriya [Law and economic theory], Moscow: INFRA-M. (In Russian).

Teubner G. (2012) Constitutional Fragments: Societal Constitutionalism in the Globalization, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Toybner G. (2016) Kontury konstitutsionnoy sotsiologii: preodolenie isklyuchitel'nosti gosudarstvennogo konstitutsionalizma [Teubner G. The Project of Constitutional Sociology: Irritating Nation State Constitutionalism]. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, no.1, pp.41–55. (In Russian).

Tsagourias N. (ed.) (2007) Transnational Constitutionalism: International and European Perspectives, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Verdross A. (1926) Die Verfassung der Völkerrechtsgemeinschaft, Wien: Julius Springer.

Verdross A. (1950) Völkerrecht, 2nd ed., Wien: Springer.

Verdross A. (1973) Die Quellen des universellen Völkerrechts: Eine Einführung, Freiburg i. Br.: Rombach & Co. GmbH.

Verdross A., Simma B. (1984) Universelles Völkerrecht: Theorie und Praxis, 3rd ed., Berlin: Duncker & Humblot.

Verdross A., Verosta S., Zemanek K. (1964) Völkerrecht. 5th ed. Wien : Springer.

Walker N. (2002) The Idea of Constitutional Pluralism. Modern Law Review, vol.65, no.3, pp.317–359.

Weiler J.H.H., Wind M. (eds.) (2003) European Constitutionalism beyond the State, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Zor'kin V.D., Lazarev L.V. (ed.) Kommentariy k Konstitutsii Rossiyskoy Fede­ratsii [Commentary on the Constitution of the Russian Federation], Moscow: Eksmo. (In Russian).